Architecture and Planning Exam Papers with Solutions

HPSC - 2019 | Assistant Architect

 Assistant Architect Paper - Solved 

Discipline Section

(Q1 – Q100)

Q.1. ‘Liquidated damage’ refer to:

(A) Cost borne by the contractor to rectify defects

(B) Compensation paid on breach of contract to the affected Party by the Other Party

(C) Money paid by the Insurance Company to owner of insured property if it is damaged

(D) Money earned by the owner from selling damaged property through Auction

Ans: (B) Compensation paid on breach of contract to the affected Party by the Other Party


If the Contractor fails to deliver project/Complete work on scheduled time, then he needs  to compensate the loss suffered.


Q.2. Which of the following trees has a Columner Form:

(A) Delonix Regia

(B) Tamarindus Indica

(C) Polyalthia Longifolia

(D) Callistemon lanceolatus

Ans: (C) Polyalthia Longifolia


Scientific name

Common Name

Delonix Regia


Tamarindus Indica

Tamarindus (Imli)

Polyalthia Longifolia


Callistemon lanceolatus

Bottle Brush



Q.3. ‘Slenderness Ratio’ of a Column is represented as: .

(A) Effective length / Cross-sectional Area

(B) Effective length / Radius of Gyration

(C) Actual length / Cross-sectional Area

(D) Actual length / Radius of Gyration

Ans: (B) Effective length / Radius of Gyration


Q.4. The Minimum Points required for GRIHA Certification are:

(A) 35

(B) 40

(C) 50

(D) 60

Ans: (C) 50


GRIHA is based on a 100-points system for rating, in which Core points are mandatory and others are optional.

Buildings area more than 2,500 m2 are only eligible for Certification.

Points achieved

GRIHA Rating


1 Stars


2 Stars


3 Stars


4 Stars


5 Stars


Q.5. RAT — TRAP Bond provide approx:

(A) 25 % less bricks and 40 % less mortar

(B) 50 % less bricks and 45 % less mortar

(C) 40 % less bricks and 20 % less mortar

(D) 60 % less bricks and 30 % less mortar

Ans: (A) 25 % less bricks and 40 % less mortar


Q.6. ____________ is not Element of Basic Design.

(Fill in the blank from the following):

(A) Point

(B) Line

(C) Texture

(D) Balance

Ans: (D) Balance


Q.7. ‘Rhythm’ in Architectural Design:

(A) Repetition of same elements

(B) Repetition of same elements in decreasing order

(C) Repetition of same elements in increasing order

(D) Repetition of elements in musical order

Ans: (D) Repetition of elements in musical order


Q.8. ‘HRIDAY Technique’ Urban Development Program stands for:

(A) Heritage Rejuvenation Implement Development Aayog Yojana

(B) Heritage review Implementation Augmentation Yojana

(C) Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana

(D) Heritage City Improvement and Development Awas Yojana

Ans: (C) Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana


HRIDAY, a central sector scheme of the Government of India, was launched on 21st January 2015 with the aim of bringing together urban planning, economic growth and heritage conservation in an inclusive manner & with the objective of preserving the heritage character of the City.


Q.9. As per URDPFI Guidelines ‘Perspective Plan’ has a period of:

(A) 1-10 years

(B) 10-15 years

(C) 20-30 years

(D) 35-45 years

Ans: (C) 20-30 years


Q.10. ‘Sight Distance’ is considered in Design of:

(A) Road Intersection

(B) Fenestration

(C) Open Kitchen

(D) Hospital

Ans: (A) Road Intersection


Q.11. Bamboo is a type of:

(A) Shrub

(B) Timber

(C) Evergreen Tree

(D) Perennial Grass

Ans: (D) Perennial Grass


Q.12. The unit of measurement of DPC (Damp Proof Course) in building construction is:

(A) KG



(D) RM

Ans: (C) SQM


Q.13. The concentric circles in Solar Chart represent:

(A) Azimuth Angle

(B) Altitude Angle

(C) Horizontal Shadow Angle

(D) Vertical Shadow Angle

Ans: (B) Altitude Angle


Q.14. Sidi Bashir Mosque with shaking Minerates is located in:

(A) Ajmer

(B) Allahabad

(C) Ahmedabad

(D) Amritsar

Ans: (C) Ahmedabad



Q.15. The Concept of ‘Dry Garden’ is associated with :

(A) Japanese Garden

(B) Chinese Garden

(C) Mughal Garden

(D) Egyptian Garden

Ans: (A) Japanese Garden


Q.16. Panch Mahal, Fathepur Sikri has :

(A) Paint Stone figures

(B) Intricate Red Sand Stone Carvings

(C) Granite Statues

(D) Terracotta Carvings

Ans: (B) Intricate Red Sand Stone Carvings

exam assure hpsc 2019 - 16


Q.17. St. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul is an example of :

(A) Gothic Style

(B) Egyptian Style

(C) Byzantine Style

(D) Romanesque Style

Ans: (C) Byzantine Style



Q.18. ‘German Pavilion of World Exhibition’ Barcelona has:

(A) Industrial Architecture

(B) Deconstruction Style

(C) Neo-Classical Architecture

(D) International Style

Ans: (D) International Style

Q.19. Biomimicry is:

(A) Study of Man machine Interaction

(B) Study of past and present of the Human Scale

(C) Initiation of models, systems and elements of nature

(D) Study of size and proportion of Human Body

Ans: (C) Initiation of models, systems and elements of nature


Q.20. Particles of soil in descending order of grain size, is :

(A) Gravel — Sand — Silt — Clay

(B) Gravel — Sand — Clay — Silt

(C) Sand — Gravel — Clay — Silt

(D) Clay — Gravel — Sand— Silt

Ans: (A) Gravel — Sand — Silt — Clay


Q.21. Vibrator used in ‘Concrete Pavement’ is:

(A) Needle Vibrator

(B) Shutter Vibrator

(C) Surface Vibrator

(D) Table Vibrator

Ans: (C) Surface Vibrator


Q.22. ‘Scaffolding’ is:

(A) To support unsafe structure

(B) To support platforms for workmen and materials at raised height during construction

(C) Mould for RCC Structure

(D) Strengthen the existing foundation

Ans: (B) To support platforms for workmen and materials at raised height during construction




Q.23. ‘Satellite Town’ is:

(A) Restricted development in an environmentally sensitive Zone

(B) Haphazard and low density settlement, outward growth of Urban Area

(C) Primarily dormitory settlement with functional dependency on parent city

(D) Inner City settlement

Ans: (C) Primarily dormitory settlement with functional dependency on parent city


Q.24. The following Cost component of a building construction project, has not a direct cost:

(A) Labor Cost

(B) Equipment Cost

(C) Material Cost

(D) Supervision Cost

Ans: (D) Supervision Cost


Q.25. Botanical Name of ‘Gulmohar’ tree is:

(A) Delonix Regia

(B) Dalbergia Sissoo

(C) Toona Ciliata

(D) Butea Monosperma

Ans: (A) Delonix Regia


Scientific name

Common Name

Delonix Regia


Dalbergia Sissoo

Indian mahogany

Toona Ciliata

red cedar

Butea Monosperma

flame-of-the-forest and bastard teak


Q.26. ‘Slum Free Plan’ is related to:





Ans: (A) RAY


RAY- Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) was launched in June 2011 with vision of “Slum free India”

PMGSY- Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojna

JNNURM – Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

RSVY – Rashtriya Sam Vikas Yojna
The RSVY is an initiative of the Planning Commission of India to address the problems of high poverty, low growth and poor governance by putting in place programmes that would accelerate the developmental process.


Q.27. The sequence of development in a Site and Services scheme is :

(A) Land —services — House — Occupant

(B) Occupant — Land — House — Services

(C) Occupant—Land — Services — House

(D) Land — occupants — House — Services

Ans: (A) Land —services — House — Occupant


Q.28. Landscape Design of ’Sakti Sthal’ the ‘Samadhi’ of Late Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi, is done by Architect:

(A) Ravindra Bhan

(B) Mohammed Shaheer

(C) Ram Sharma

(D) Raj Rewal

Ans: (A) Ravindra Bhan


Q.29. The Maximum points in the LEED (New construction) rating system can be earned through:

(A) Sustainable Sites

(B) Water Efficiency

(C) Energy and Atmosphere

(D) Material and Resources

Ans: (C) Energy and Atmosphere


Q.30. ‘Grafting’ in Landscaping is :

(A) Useful in reproducing plants that would not breed true if propagated by seed

(B) A live bud from a desired plant ‘inserted into a host Plant

(C) Trimming and cutting of Lawns

(D) Selective cutting of plants branches for better growth

Ans: (A) Useful in reproducing plants that would not breed true if propagated by seed


Q.31. A Housing Finance Institution in the pvt. Sector is:





Ans: (D) HDFC


Q.32. Which of the following commands in AUTOCAD is used to create 3D solid between various cross sections:





Ans: (D) LOFT


Q.33. Architect who criticized ornament in useful objects in his essay ‘Ornament and Crime’:

(A) Walter Gropius

(B) H.P. Berlage

(C) Adolf Loos

(D) John Ruskin

Ans: (C) Adolf Loos


Q.34. ‘Fineness modulus’ of sand measures its:

(A) Ratio of coarse and fine sand

(B) Grading according to particle size

(C) Compressive strength

(D) Bulking of sand

Ans: (B) Grading according to particle size


Q.35 The spherical surface of geodesic dome comprises of:

(A) Equilateral triangle of various sizes

(B) Isosceles triangles of uniform sizes

(C) Isosceles triangles of various sizes

(D) Equilateral triangles of uniform sizes

Ans: (D) Equilateral triangles of uniform sizes




Q.36. Complementary colors in a Munsell pigment color wheel refers to:

(A) Colors in alternate positions

(B) Colors opposite to one another

(C) Colors adjacent to each other

(D) A pair of secondary colors

Ans: (B) Colors opposite to one another


Q.37. The cause of ‘short column effect’, during seismic occurrence, is due to:

(A) Centralized rapture of the column

(B) Tearing of reinforcement bars

(C) Bulking of column

(D) Stress concentration

Ans: (D) Stress concentration


Q.38. Alidade equipment is for:

(A) Traversing

(B) Chain Survey

(C) Plane Table Survey

(D) Contour Survey

Ans: (C) Plane Table Survey


Q.39. Intercepting Trap is used for:

(A) Between waste water pipe and main house drain

(B) Between septic tank and soak pit

(C) Junction of House drain and sewer

(D) Below the wash basin

Ans: (C) Junction of House drain and sewer


Intercepting Traps is provided at junction of house sewer and municipal sewer. Purpose of this trap is to prevent entry of foul gases of municipal sewer into the house.


Q.40. ‘Toothing’ is a Construction Technique’ used in:

(A) Wood Construction

(B) Steel Construction

(C) R.C.C. Construction

(D) Brick Masonry

Ans: (D) Brick Masonry


In Toothing technique alternate openings (teeth) for adjoining brick wall to start from.



Q.41. Skeleton and Skin Concept in building design and construction evolved during the:

(A) Roman Period

(B) Renaissance Period

(C) Gothic Period

(D) Greek Period

Ans: (C) Gothic Period


Q.42. The minimum width of a two lane Urban Carriage way, without raised Kerb (as per IRC standards) is:

(A) 6.0 m

(B) 6.5 m

(C) 7.0 m

(D) 9.0 m

Ans: (C) 7.0 m


Q.43. Pritzker Architecture Prize 2018 has been awarded to:

(A) B.V. Doshi

(B) Mario Botta

(C) Rem Kool Haas

(D) Charles Correa

Ans: (A) B.V. Doshi


Q.44. ‘Hip Roof’ is formed by surfaces sloping in:

(A) One Direction

(B) Two Directions

(C) Three Directions

(D) Four Directions

Ans: (D) Four Directions



Q.45. This act is responsible for establishment of Development Authorities:

(A) 4th Constitutional Amendment Act

(B) Municipal Act

(C) Land Acquisition Act

(D) Town and Country Planning Act

Ans: (D) Town and Country Planning Act


Q.46. The maximum number of points which can be snapped in a circle using OSNAP command in AUTOCAD is:

(A) One

(B) Three

(C) Four

(D) Five

Ans: (D) Five


One centre and 4 Quadrat points


Q.47. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum in Japan has been designed by:

(A) Kenzo Tange

(B) Kisho Kurokawa

(C) Tadao Ando

(D) I.M. Pei

Ans: (A) Kenzo Tange


Q.48. The angle of Inclination with Horizontal Plane, in Escalators, should be in range of:

(A) 10 degree – 20 degree

(B) 20 degree – 30 degree

(C) 30 degree – 35 degree

(D) 35 degree – 45 degree

Ans: (C) 30 degree – 35 degree


Q.49. As per the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 2010, the extent of ‘Prohibited Area’ beyond the ‘Demarcated Protected Area’ in meters is:

(A) Fifty

(B) Hundred

(C) Two Hundred

(D) Five Hundred

Ans: (B) Hundred


Q.50. ‘Car Porch in Residential Building’ is an example of:

(A) Depressed Plane

(B) Base Plane

(C) Elevated Plane

(D) Over head Plane

Ans: (D) Over head Plane


Q.51. ‘Segregation at Source’ is a concept associated with:

(A) Solid Waste Management

(B) Disaster Management

(C) Traffic Management

(D) Water Management

Ans: (A) Solid Waste Management


Segregation of dry and wet waste into two different bins for efficient processing and recovery and recycling of valuables.


Q.52. ‘Indore Slum Networking Programme’ has been Planned by:

(A) V. Doshi

(B) D. Mukherjee

(C) Anil Laul

(D) Hirnanshu Parikh

Ans: (D) Hirnanshu Parikh


Q.53. ____________ is used for ‘Disinfection’ under ‘Water purification’ (Fill in the blank from the following):

(A) Sodium Zeolite

(B) Alum

(C) Sand

(D) Chlorine

Ans: (D) Chlorine


Q.54. Which of the following process is NOT used for Corrosion Resistance of Cast — Iron?

(A) Painting

(B) Epoxy Coating

(C) Quenching

(D) Galvanizing

Ans: (C) Quenching


Quenching involves rapid cooling, of a metal object from the high temperature as by immersion in oil or water.


Q.55. HUDCO aims at providing:

(A) Urban Transportation

(B) Low Cost Sanitation

(C) Rural Development and Agriculture

(D) Loan Finance for Housing and Urban Development

Ans: (D) Loan Finance for Housing and Urban Development


Q.56. In case of ‘Electrical Fire’, which of Fire Extinguisher should be applied:

(A) Dry Powder

(B) CO2

(C) CO2 and Dry Powder

(D) Water

Ans: (C) CO2 and Dry Powder


Q.57. In case of residential apartments, the Effective Floor Area available for use within an apartment, known as:

(A) Carpet Area

(B) Built-up Area

(C) Plinth Area

(D) Super Built-up Area

Ans: (A) Carpet Area


Q.58. Star rating of an Air Conditioner determined by its:

(A) Cooling Capacity

(B) Energy Efficiency Ratio

(C) Power of Compressor

(D) Power Consumption

Ans: (B) Energy Efficiency Ratio


Q.59. ‘V7 concept’ about hierarchy of Roads given by:

(A) Charles Correa

(B) B.V.Doshi

(C) Le Corbusier

(D) Richard L. Meier

Ans: (C) Le Corbusier


The roads of the city are classified into seven categories known as systems of 7 Vs as below :

  • V-1 Fast roads connecting Chandigarh to other towns.
  • V-2 Arterial roads.
  • V-3 Fast vehicular sector dividing roads.
  • V-4 Meandering shopping streets.
  • V-5 Sector circulation roads.
  • V-6 Access roads to houses.
  • V-7 Foot paths and cycle tracks.


Q.60. National Ceremonial Plaza at Thimpu in Bhutan has been designed by:

(A) Karan Grover

(B) I.M. Pei

(C) Christopher. Charles Benninger

(D) Richard L. Meier

Ans: (C) Christopher. Charles Benninger


Q.61. Town of Greek Period is:

(A) Miletus

(B) Montpazier

(C) Kahun

(D) Timgad

Ans: (A) Miletus


Q.62. Author of the book ‘Design of Cities’ is:

(A) Amos Rapoport

(B) Leo Jacobson

(C) Christopher Alexander

(D) Edmond Bacon

Ans: (D) Edmond Bacon


Q.63. ‘Meenakshi Temple, Madurai’ belongs to:

(A) Pandya Period

(B) Vijaynagar

(C) Pallava Period

(D) Chalukya Period

Ans: (A) Pandya Period


Q.64. TWA Terminal, New York has:

(A) Geodesic Dome

(B) Shell Structure

(C) Space Frame

(D) Pneumatic Structure

Ans: (B) Shell Structure


Q.65. In AUTOCAD, a line of infinite length in the direction defined by starting point and through point, is known as:





Ans: (A) RAY


Q.66. The information that is not essential to be submitted for sanction of any building plan is:

(A) Land Cost

(B) Site Plan

(C) Floor Plans

(D) Title Deed

Ans: (B) Site Plan


Q.67. The unit of ‘Sound Pressure Level’ is:

(A) dB

(B) Phon

(C) W/m2

(D) Sabin

Ans: (A) dB


Q.68. Botanical Name for Bargad tree is:

(A) Cassia Fistula

(B) Cordia sebastena

(C) Plumeria alba

(D) Ficus Benghalensis

Ans: (D) Ficus Benghalensis


Q.69. Sizes, Location and Settlement belongs to:

(A) Central Place Theory

(B) Gravity Model Theory

(C) Rank Size Rule Theory

(D) Core Periphery Model Theory

Ans: (A) Central Place Theory


Q.70. ‘Indian Habitat Centre, New Delhi’ designed by:

(A) Charles Correa

(B) Joseph Allein Stein

(C) Norman Foster

(D) Moshe Safdi

Ans: (B) Joseph Allein Stein


Q.71. Cable used for Pre-stressed Concreting :

(A) Tendon


(C) Tensigrity


Ans: (A) Tendon


Q.72. Reinforcement bar used in RCC Construction:





Ans: (B) TMT


Q.73. Poly Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (PTFE) membrane is:

(A) Teflon

(B) Nylon

(C) Fabric

(D) Polyester

Ans: (A) Teflon


Q.74. The ingredient to be added to produce Aerated Cement Concrete is:

(A) Aluminium

(B) Calcium Chloride

(C) Gypsum

(D) Sulphur

Ans: (A) Aluminium


Q.75. Garden City Movement belongs to:

(A) Self-contained, self-sufficient community surrounded by green belt

(B) Revival of the relationship between Man and Nature

(C) Unity, Cohesion and balanced relationship between urban components and elements

(D) Technical and socio-economic processes resulting in growth, energy production and waste elimination

Ans: (A) Self-contained, self-sufficient community surrounded by green belt


Q.76. According to Census of India, ‘Metropolitan Urban Agglomeration’ is a contiguous spread of several urban settlements Where the minimum Population Size is :

(A) One Laid

(B) Five Lakh

(C) Ten Lakh

(D) Fifty Lakh

Ans: (C) Ten Lakh


Q.77. BEES is:

(A) Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability

(B) Built Environment and Ecological Society .

(C) Building for Energy and Environmental Sustainability

(D) Built Environment and Engineering Services

Ans: (C) Building for Energy and Environmental Sustainability


Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability (BEES) is an automated approach for measuring the life-cycle assessment, plus environmental and economic performance of a building product.


Q.78. In a single stack system of Plumbing:

(A) All the appliances and Traps are fully ventilated

(B) Only WC branches are connected with Anti siphonage pipes

(C) Anti Siphonage pipes are omitted

(D) Only the stack is vented above the branch connection at each floor level

Ans: (C) Anti Siphonage pipes are omitted


Q.79. Criteria for background noise (in NC) in hospital and apartment is :

(A) 10—20

(B) 20—30

(C) 30—40

(D) 40—50

Ans: (B) 20—30


Q.80. The minimum width of staircase flight in an educational building above 24 meter (as per National building code) is:

(A) 1.0 m

(B) 1.5 m

(C) 2.0 m

(D) 2.5 m

Ans: (C) 2.0 m


Q.81. ‘Finger Plan’ concept of Urban Planning was initially adopted in:

(A) Canberra

(B) Paris

(C) Copenhagen

(D) Tokyo

Ans: (C) Copenhagen


Q.82. An element constructed at intervals along the length of a wall to stabilize it against overturning, is:

(A) Barrel Vault

(B) Pilaster

(C) Squinch Arch

(D) Buttress

Ans: (D) Buttress


Q.83. Damage of foundation due to ‘Soil Liquefaction’ is related to:

(A) Cyclones

(B) Landslides

(C) Floods

(D) Earthquake

Ans: (D) Earthquake


Q.84. Walls with high thermal Inertia are suitable for: ‘

(A) Hot— dry climate

(B) Hot — humid climate

(C) Temperate climate

(D) Cold climate

Ans: (A) Hot— dry climate


Q.85. A ‘Demolition Contract’ for building is awarded to the:

(A) Lowest Bidder

(B) Highest Bidder

(C) Second Lowest Bidder

(D) Second Highest Bidder

Ans: (B) Highest Bidder


Q.86. The ratio between illuminator at working point indoor to total light available simultaneously outdoor is known as:

(A) Day Light factor

(B) Sky Component

(C) Internally Reflected Component

(D) Externally Reflected Component

Ans: (A) Day Light factor


Q.87. Bulking of sand is highest in:

(A) Coarse Sand

(B) Medium Sand

(C) Fine Sand

(D) Sand saturated with Water

Ans: (C) Fine Sand


Q.88. The process of spraying Polyester, polyurethane, Acrylic and Epoxy Plastic, followed by heat curing onto metal is called:

(A) Anodizing

(B) Galvanizing

(C) Vitreous Enameling

(D) Power coating

Ans: (D) Power coating


Q.89. Baluster belongs to :

(A) Door

(B) Dome

(C) Staircase

(D) Cornice

Ans: (C) Staircase


Q.90. A combination of colors forming an equilateral triangle in a Color wheel is called :

(A) Analogous Scheme

(B) Triad Scheme

(C) Split Complementary Scheme

(D) Double Complementary Scheme

Ans: (B) Triad Scheme


Q.91. The color code for ‘Industrial Building’ in ‘Land Use’ Map is shown by:

(A) Red

(B) Grey

(C) Blue

(D) Violet

Ans: (D) Violet


Q.92. Which of the following is a part of a ‘Studio Apartment’:

(A) Master Bed Room

(B) Artist’s Room

(C) Multipurpose Space

(D) Children’s Room

Ans: (C) Multipurpose Space


Q.93. ‘LUX’ is:

(A) Newton — meter

(B) Cycles per second

(C) Lumen per meter square

(D) Lumen per meter

Ans: (C) Lumen per meter square


Q.94. In a Birds eye perspective, view of ‘Cuboid’, the maximum No, of Vanishing Points :

(A) One

(B) Two

(C) Three

(D) Six

Ans: (C) Three


Q.95. In CPM for time scheduling, ‘forward Pass Calculation’ is carried Out for determining:

(A) Late start and Early finish time

(B) Early start and Early finish time

(C) Late start and Late finish time

(D) Early start and Late finish time

Ans: (B) Early start and Early finish time


Q.96. Collapse of the World Trade Center, NewYork was due lo:

(A) Wind Load Failure

(B) Foundation Failure

(C) Thermal Performance failure of reinforcement steel in R.C.C

(D) Thermal Performance failure of structural Steel

Ans: (D) Thermal Performance failure of structural Steel


Q.97. During the construction of tall buildings, the equipment used for hoisting building materials to the upper floors, is a:

(A) Good Lift

(B) Capsule Lift

(C) Gantry Crane

(D) Tower Crane

Ans: (D) Tower Crane


Q.98. A Rock-Cut style of Architecture, is represented by:

(A) Shyarn Rama Temple, Bishpur

(B) Kailas Temple, Ellora

(C) Kandariya Mahadev Temple, Khaj uraho

(D) Sanchi Stupa, Sanchi

Ans: (B) Kailas Temple, Ellora


Q.99. ‘Area Based Development’ and ‘Pan City Development’ are part of:

(A) Smart City Mission

(B) Digital India

(C) Swachh Bharat

(D) Atal Innovation Mission

Ans: (A) Smart City Mission


Q.100. In Mass Transportation LRTS stand for:

(A) Light Rail Transit System

(B) Linear Rail Transit System

(C) Light Rail Transportation System

(D) Linear Rail Transportation System

Ans: (A) Light Rail Transit System


Reasoning (Q.No. 1-10) 




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